Emergency First Aid
Knowing how to give first aid in emergencies can and does, save many lives. Whenever possible, try and call a doctor or an ambulance.
Did You Know
- A well-stocked first-aid kit can help you respond effectively to common injuries and emergencies.
- It is better to have tetanus shots once every three years.
- Even major injuries benefit from swift first aid treatment
- First aid, also requires at least a modicum of common sense; so apply your knowledge carefully when confronted by an emergency situation.
Mouth to Nose
- Put victim’s face up
- Clear mouth with finger
- Use one hand to hold victim’s chin forwards and mouth closed. place other hand on forehead
- Seal your lips around victim’s nose and breathe into it.
- Remove your mouth and watch the victim’s chest fall
- Breathe into victim’s nose again. Give approximately 12-16 breaths a minute.
- Check if the victim is breathing and drag away from danger
- Loosen anything around the neck that might be choking the victim
- Clear the victim’s airway by lying him on his back, supporting chin and removing any debris from mouth with finger
- Check breathing and pulse
- If you cannot see, hear or feel any breathing, give mouth to mouth resuscitation
- Once breathing is normal, turn victim on side in recovery position
- Again make sure the victim’s airway is clear.
- Keep careful watch on breathing and give artificial respiration again if it falters.
- Get medical aid.
Bites and Stings
- Homeopathy experts say that all animal bites must be washed with pure tincture of Hypericum or a dilution in cold, boiled water. For pain and swelling, have Apis 6x
- Conventional treatment- Wash affected area with warm water and soap or milk antiseptic.
- Dry gently, wiping down and away from wound
- Cover with clean dressing. Consult a doctor and have a tetanus shot or a course of antibiotics
- For Bee Stings, in which both sting and poison bag are left in casualty, apply crumbled leaves of plantain
- For Wasp Stings – in which only the poison is left in the casualty- wash the affected area with vinegar
- Naturopathy experts advice to immerse the affected area in cold water containing ice cubes and a tsp of baking soda. This slows circulation and helps prevent poison spreading.
- One can also try holding a fresh slice of raw onion over the area or cover with wheat germ oil. Put a ice bag on top and apply calendula cream to soothe
- Gently wipe blisters with cotton wool soaked in methylated spirit
- Alternatively , wash it with soap and water or antiseptic wipe
- If blister is large and fluid filled, sterilize a sewing needle by passing once or twice through a flame
- Let the needle cool for a second and do not touch or wipe the tip
- Hold the needle flat on skin and press firmly into blister, bursting it.
- Remove the needle and press gently with clean swab, wipe and apply dry dressing.
- Biochemic tissue salts- Take 4 tablet of Nat. mur every 30 minutes till pain goes away. For children, try 2 tablets every 30 minutes.
- Aromatherapy- Dab lavender oil on blister.
- It involves providing artificial pump for blood if heart has stopped pumping.
- Give 2 inflations of the casualty’s lungs and then feel for carotid pulse for at least 5 seconds.
- If pulse cannot be detected, and if casualty’s complexion is turning blue, place on firm surface and start chest compression
- Feel for breastbone and place heel of one hand on the casualty’s chest, two fingers up from bottom of breastbone
- Keep thumb and fingers raised and off chest.
- Keep heel of your hand in place and put other hand over it, fingers interlocked, thumb and finger raised.
- Press down about 4-5cm. Repeat until pulse beats unaided.
- Remember that Chest compression should only be used if casualty’s heart has stopped beating and he seems likely to die. Ideally it should be learned from a qualified instructor and should be applied only be someone who has been trained. If applied incorrectly or unnecessarily, it could be fatal
- As the victim comes around, place a few drops of Rescue remedy on tongue or offer in water or tea
- Give Aconite after faint from fright.
- Give Arsenicum after faint from exhaustion or cold and carbo vegetalis after faint from lack of air.
- If casualty has passed out , but is breathing normally, lay on back with legs raised above level of head.
- Make sure casualty can still breathe, if necessary by supporting chin
- Hold legs up or prop them on chair or anything else suitable
- Loosen clothing at neck, chest and waist and ensure victim gets plenty of fresh air
- If the victim has difficulty in breathing, ensure that airway is clear and if necessary administer artificial respiration.
- Press point three fingers width above wrist crease on inner wrist centrally in line with middle finger. Apply pressure towards center of wrist.
- Alternatively, wristbands applying similar pressure can be worn. They can be bought from chemists.
- Travel sickness and seasickness tablets are available from chemists and take one about an hour before setting out on a journey
- If driving, do not take tablets containing antihistamine, which can cause drowsiness
- Fresh air and regular breaks should also help ward off sickness.
- Apply cold water and then add 1 or 2 drops of lavender oil.
- Apply cold compress of marigold infusion. Marigold or comfrey cream may also ease large and mild burns
- Apply fresh leaves of houseleeks or plantain to small burns
- Apply a lotion made from dock roots or mixture of water and vinegar.
- Soothe mild cases of sunburn by applying calamine lotion and witch hazel
- If sunburn is severe, get medical help.
- Have a lot of fluids. Do not drink alcohol or beverages with caffeine because they speed up fluid loss
- Never deliberately burst blisters caused by sunburn
- First Aid for Animal Bites
- How to Help yourself and Others – Edited by Susan D. Allowitz