Illegal Immigration or migration into a country refers to the situation when a person of a different nationality migrates into a country in violation of the immigration laws and sovereignty of that country. This raises many political, economical and social issues becoming a reason of concern in developed and developing countries.
Reasons and theories
Illegal immigration is carried out mainly by crossing borders and getting into the territory of the neighboring country or, when people fly abroad, they tend to overstay their visa and hence become an illegal immigrant into that country. There are many reasons and theories behind Illegal immigration and most of them are true and for real.
Developed countries like the U.S.A and Canada face this issue on a daily basis as illegal immigrants from Mexico and other parts of the world like the Indian Sub-continent, are increasing the number of illegal immigrants in the country. Not only the developed countries, developing countries like India itself is facing this issue of illegal immigration from parts of Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal and other neighboring countries. So what exactly is governing this ever increasing migration?
Countries like The U.S.A. and Canada and many other developed nations, still grant an automatic citizenship to each and every child that is born in their country regardless of the nationality of the parents.
They maybe tourists, diplomats, on a business trip or visiting the country for any other purpose, but if the child had taken birth within the national territory of the foreign nation, he/she would be given automatic citizenship making matters a little complicated for the parents of the child and their family. Apart from the birth, illegal immigrants hope to attain citizenship of that country automatically as they keep applying for citizenships or establish a relationship with a citizen of that country.
Socio-Economic labour markets
Other reason is due to the Socio-Economic labour markets that exist. People belonging to lower Socio-Economic backgrounds/circumstances tend to migrate illegally to higher socio-economic countries to perceive greater economic opportunities and a better quality of life. The migration trend follows from a developing country to a developed country.
But, as the economic stature of many developing countries rise, the number of illegal immigrants into these countries also increases. People planning to migrate illegally; tend to follow a simple equation, if the benefits of migrating are greater than costs, migration would be the option for most of the people.
Benefits include a better pay, a better living standard and maybe a future citizenship in opposition to the costs like restrictions of being an immigrant, leaving behind family and life and most importantly, the probability of being detained.
Trade liberalization also gives birth to illegal immigration as the developing countries seek benefits of globalization by opening their economies resulting in wide-spread displacement of skilled workers who immigrate to better job opportunities.
Sometimes, developing countries themselves create a situation where immigrants are required to do jobs that the native born citizen does not opts for. Jobs which require no skills at all like working in the farms, construction sites, house maids, busboys in hotels and restaurants etc. are not opted by the native born citizens regardless of the wages and thus attract illegal immigrants who willingly take up such low-grade job and work for whatever wage that they are subjected to.
Poverty and overpopulation
Poverty and overpopulation can also be o e of the major reasons behind the ever increasing migration, mostly illegal. Illegal immigration, in most of the countries, lead to slavery, prostitution and eventually death as the immigrants are forced to do whatever jobs that they get as they have to earn a minimum income that would enable him to support himself and his family in the native country.
Women, who are brought illegally into another country, are forced into prostitution as they also need to work and earn for the family. Death cases are very common amongst illegal immigrants as when in they do not get any job they commit suicide or are forced into death by the circumstances.