Negro Pepper

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Botanical Name: Xylopia aethiopica [Dun.] A. Rich

Common Names: African Grains of Selim, Grains of Selim, Kani pepper, Moor pepper, Senegal pepper

Family: Annonaceae

The term ‘pepper’ is today synonymous with ‘black pepper’, or Piper nigrum, a member of the family Piperaceae. Very few people know of the existence of two other plants that were popularly used as spices, and as a substitute for black pepper, in the 14th and 15th centuries AD. Negro pepper or Xylopia aethiopica is one of them.

Negro pepper was used as a substitute for black pepper in Europe. But when regular imports of black pepper began from India in the 16th century, the use of Negro pepper declined drastically and, subsequently, it was only seen during war times or when there was a shortage in black pepper supply. The last time its presence was detected was a little after World War II. It is, now, commonly, not available outside of the countries where it’s grown.

Though named Negro pepper, the plant does not belong to the typical pepper-producing families, such as Piperaceae and Solanaceae, but to Annonaceae, the Custard Apple family.

The genus Xylopia derives its name from the Greek xylon pikron, meaning ‘bitter wood’, while the specific name aethiopica refers to the area of origin of the tree, though most of Negro pepper’s cultivation is now restricted to Ghana.

Two species of Xylopia — X. aethiopica and X. striata — grow in tropical Africa and are used in local cooking as well as a traditional medicine. Another species, X. aromatica (Burro pepper), is found in South America and finds similar use among Brazilian Indians.

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[edit] Medicinal Uses

Medicinally, Xylopia finds use as a carminative, cough remedy, and postpartum tonic and lactation aid. Its extract has been used as a cure for stomach aches, bronchitis, biliousness and dysentery, besides being used as a poultice for headaches and neuralgia.

Xylopia fruit extracts have effective anti-microbial action against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

[edit] Chemical Composition

The chemical constituents of the Xylopia fruit include essential oils (2 per cent to 4.5 per cent) consisting, among others, β-pinene, 1,8-cineol, α terpineol, terpinene-4-ol, paradol and bisabolene.

Chemical analysis has also revealed the existence of linalool (E) β–ocimene, α-farnesene, α-pinere, myrtenol and β–phillandrene. Traces of vanillin and 3 ethyphenol were also detected.

The essential oils of the stem bark (0.85 per cent) and the leaves (0.5 per cent) of X. aromatica reveal that the bark oil consists mainly of α-pinene, transpinocarveol, verbenone and myrtenol. The leaf oil, on the other hand, consists of spathulenol, cryptone, β-caryophyllene and limonene.

Among the non-volatile compounds are tetracyclic diterpenes of the kaurane type. Kauranes and structurally similar kolavanes, and trachylobanes also appear in extracts from the bark.

[edit] References

  • A summarised description of the flavour of Grains of Paradise from “What Peppercorns Only Dream of Being” New York Times, May 3, 2000, by Ammanda Hesser
  • Grains of Paradise – Iwu, M. W., A. R. Duncan, and C.O. Okunja 1999. New antimicrobials of plant origin p. 457 – 462. In: J. Janick (ed), Perspectives on new crops and new uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA
  • Grains of Paradise from Nagness et at 1971. Food and feed crops of the United States
  • The Book of Spices, F. Rosengarten Jr. 1969, Livingston Publishing Co, Penn., USA